The battle over bankruptcy reform seems to be an ongoing struggle between the would-be reformers and those who feel that debtors' rights would be adversely affected by reform of the bankruptcy laws. Despite the differences in opinion, many lawmakers agree with creditors that loopholes in the law need to be closed.
Chapter 12 specifically provides that a debtor may voluntarily convert a Chapter 12 bankruptcy case to a Chapter 7 bankruptcy or dismiss the case at any time. Creditors, however, may not seek the involuntary conversion of a debtor's Chapter 12 bankruptcy to a Chapter 7 bankruptcy unless fraud is shown in connection with the case.
The Bankruptcy Code contains a number of provisions empowering the trustee, the debtor, or both to avoid various types of liens and other prebankruptcy transfers of the debtor's property. The Bankruptcy Code definition of ''transfer'' includes creation of a lien. The Bankruptcy Code allows the trustee or debtor to nullify or undo prior transactions in order to promote the dual bankruptcy policies of equity among creditors and a fresh start for debtors.
The Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure provide that a party in interest may move for reconsideration of an order allowing or disallowing a claim against the estate and that the court after a hearing on notice should enter an appropriate order. The reconsideration of a claim cannot upset proper distributions already made to holders of other allowed claims.
A "claim" in bankruptcy is (1) a right to payment, whether or not reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured or unsecured; or (2) a right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured or unsecured.